3
Nov/11
6

Photo autocopy from SD card

Copying photos from the SD card of my camera is a very common task. And always the same pattern. Take the card out of the camera, put it into the sd card reader, wait for the automount popup, browse to the picture directory, select all images, cut all images, browse to my photo directory, create a new folder, name the folder, move to the folder, paste the pictures into it, wait for the finished job.

Sound boring? Sure, it is!

Now, how to make this one a little smarter? Maybe scripting some of those steps is a cool idea. So how would this work in a perfect world?

The idea

Taking the SD card out of the camera and putting it into the SD card reader does not seem to be easily scripted, that’s why I focused on the other steps ;-). Okay, I’d like to put the card into the reader, just wait for all the images to be moved and then put the card back into the camera.

But how to reach this goal? Maybe you’re interested in my solution…

One thing we need to know: When hotplugging devices to my Ubuntu system the kernel tells the udev daemon about that new device. The kernel informs the udev daemon about a lot of different events, like adding and removing hardware, volumes and so on. But how to get closer to these events?

Digging into udev events

There is an interesting tool named udevadm which can be used to monitor the incoming events. Let’s see which events are fired when I put the SD card into the card reader:

> udevadm monitor
monitor will print the received events for:
UDEV - the event which udev sends out after rule processing
KERNEL - the kernel uevent
 
KERNEL[1316365297.577602] add /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368 (mmc)
KERNEL[1316365297.578091] add /devices/virtual/bdi/179:0 (bdi)
UDEV [1316365297.579008] add /devices/virtual/bdi/179:0 (bdi)
UDEV [1316365297.579058] add /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368 (mmc)
KERNEL[1316365297.580552] add /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368/block/mmcblk0 (block)
KERNEL[1316365297.580644] add /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368/block/mmcblk0/mmcblk0p1 (block)
UDEV [1316365297.617556] add /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368/block/mmcblk0 (block)
UDEV [1316365298.314850] add /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368/block/mmcblk0/mmcblk0p1 (block)

These are a lot of of events, but there is only one needed, so it is needed to choose the correct one. One way would be to try one event after each other, but there is a better way: Now one need to know that it is possible to react on specific events and run some script every time such an event is received. The script is executed and has access to the whole environment which is populated with some useful information.

To get a little more information create a matching udev rule and a small script which appends the whole environment to a temporary dump file:

Store the udev rule in the rules directory /etc/udev/rules.d/99-sd-autocopy.rules:

SUBSYSTEM=="block", ACTION=="add", RUN="/usr/local/bin/sd-autocopy"

The udev daemon should recognize that rule immediately. If a restart of the udev daemon might help.

Now create the script to dump the environment at the path specified in the udev rule /usr/local/bin/sd-autocopy:

#!/bin/bash
echo ======================== >> /tmp/test
env >> /tmp/test

Then make the script executable:

chmod +x /usr/local/bin/sd-autocopy

Now simply plug the SD card of your choice into your SD card reader and have a look at the contents of /tmp/test afterwards. The file should contain information of several events where the single events are separated by the lines of equal sings.

Having these events recorded it is now possible to grab the important information for the script. When looking at the single events we see that there is one ADD event for the added disk and one ADD event for each partition. We are only interested in the partition events and need the first partition of the device, so add the following conditions to the udev rule:

ENV{DEVTYPE}=="partition", ENV{UDISKS_PARTITION_NUMBER}=="1"

which should result in this rule:

SUBSYSTEM=="block", ACTION=="add", ENV{DEVTYPE}=="partition", ENV{UDISKS_PARTITION_NUMBER}=="1", RUN="/usr/local/bin/sd-autocopy"

After changing the rule, deleting the /tmp/test file and an additional test we can see that the test sd-autocopy script gets only called with the correct event. This event comes with the following environment variables:

DEVTYPE=partition
SUBSYSTEM=block
ID_SERIAL=0x000006d4
ID_FS_UUID=F84E-1690
UDISKS_PARTITION_OFFSET=4194304
DEVPATH=/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368/block/mmcblk0/mmcblk0p1
UDISKS_PARTITION_NUMBER=1
ID_FS_VERSION=FAT32
MINOR=1
ACTION=add
PWD=/
UDISKS_PARTITION_ALIGNMENT_OFFSET=0
ID_FS_TYPE=vfat
ID_NAME=SDC
MAJOR=179
DEVLINKS=/dev/disk/by-id/mmc-SDC_0x000006d4-part1 /dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:15:00.2-part1 /dev/disk/by-uuid/F84E-1690
DEVNAME=/dev/mmcblk0p1
SHLVL=1
ID_FS_USAGE=filesystem
ID_PART_TABLE_TYPE=dos
UDISKS_PRESENTATION_NOPOLICY=0
UDISKS_PARTITION_SIZE=16130244608
ID_FS_UUID_ENC=F84E-1690
UDISKS_PARTITION_SCHEME=mbr
UDISKS_PARTITION_TYPE=0x0c
UDISKS_PARTITION=1
UDISKS_PARTITION_SLAVE=/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:15:00.2/mmc_host/mmc0/mmc0:b368/block/mmcblk0
ID_PATH=pci-0000:15:00.2
SEQNUM=2825
_=/usr/bin/env

The sd-autocopy script

With these information the SD card can be identified. It will use the ID_SERIAL and DEVNAME environment variables in the script. Now I identified the tasks which need to be performed by the sd-autocopy script:

  1. Verify the sd card to be a handled one
  2. Mount the partition
  3. Find all images on the partition
  4. Create a folder for each date in a target base path
  5. Move the files to the date specific folder
  6. Unmount the partition

The script is placed in /usr/local/bin/sd-autocopy (just remove the testing code from that file). And here is the finished script:

#!/bin/bash
#
# sd-autocopy - Copies/Moves images automatically from inserted media
# 
# Copyright (c) 2011 Lars Michelsen <lm@larsmichelsen.com>
# 
# License:
# 
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
# published by the Free Software Foundation.
# 
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# 
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
 
# But this in curly braces and detach the whole block to background
# for not blocking udev during copying.
{
 
USER=lm
TARGET=/home/$USER/Pictures/Photos
HANDLED_SERIALS="0x000006d4"
MOUNT=/mnt/sd-autocopy
FILE_MATCH=".*\.(jpg|cr2)$"
TRANSFER=mv
 
# END OF CONFIGURATION ########################################################
 
# DEBUG:
# To enable debugging without udev events uncomment the lines below
#ID_SERIAL=0x000006d4
#DEVNAME=/dev/mmcblk0p1
 
# Catch unset but needed vars - terminate script
if [ -z "$ID_SERIAL" ] || [ -z "$DEVNAME" ]; then
    exit 1
fi
 
if ! echo "$HANDLED_SERIALS" | grep $ID_SERIAL >/dev/null 2>&1; then
    logger -t sd-autocopy "Got unhandled serial, skipping (Serial: $ID_SERIAL)"
    exit 1
fi
 
logger -t sd-autocopy "Got handled serial ($ID_SERIAL), moving images..."
 
if [ ! -d "$MOUNT" ]; then
    mkdir -p "$MOUNT"
fi
 
mount $DEVNAME "$MOUNT"
 
LINES=$(find "$MOUNT" -regextype posix-egrep -iregex "$FILE_MATCH" -printf "%TY-%Tm-%Td_%p\n")
DATES=$(echo "$LINES" | cut -d_ -f1 | uniq)
 
# First create the directories when missing
for DATE in $DATES; do
    echo $DATE
    mkdir -p "$TARGET/$DATE"
done
 
# Move the images
NUM=0
for LINE in $LINES; do
    DATE=${LINE%%_*}
    FILE=${LINE#*_}
    logger -t sd-autocopy "Moving $FILE to $TARGET/$DATE"
    $TRANSFER "$FILE" "$TARGET/$DATE"
    NUM=$(($NUM+1))
done
 
umount $DEVNAME
 
# Fix the permissions for all directories recursive where
# files have been copied/moved to
for DATE in $DATES; do
    chown -R $USER.$USER "$TARGET/$DATE"
done
 
logger -t sd-autocopy "Finished job. Moved $NUM images."
 
} &
exit 0

The script can easily be extended by modifying the first few lines:

USER=lm
TARGET=/home/$USER/Pictures/Photos
HANDLED_SERIALS="0x000006d4"
MOUNT=/mnt/sd-autocopy
FILE_MATCH=".*\.(jpg|cr2)$"
# Move or copy - or something different
TRANSFER=mv
  • USER is needed a) for gathering the target directory and b) for owning the copied files.
  • TARGET holds the path to the target base directory.
  • HANDLED_SERIALS holds a list of space separated serial numbers of the SD cards to use the script for.
  • MOUNT contains the mountpoint for the first partition on the SD card.
  • FILE_MATCH is the matching regex for the files to be copied. It applies to the whole path of the files.
  • TRANSFER defines the transfer mode. For example “mv” to move the files or “cp” to copy them.

The script sends it’s log entries to syslog, so you might want to have a look at the syslog files for debugging.

Btw. the script is not limited to handling images. By just modifying the FILE_MATCH pattern it is possible to copy other filetypes.

Filed under: Open Source
Comments (6) Trackbacks (0)
  1. GPNo Gravatar
    06:00 on March 17th, 2013

    Thank you, thank you, Lars! I just KNEW someone had already done this, and I was positive if I found it, it would be a better bash script than I could ever write! :)

    I am going to use this to automate workflow for my Nikon DSLR. My goal is to use this script to trigger a file copy and launch a photo browser to do a quick triage upon SD card import and cull any bad photos. Another script will archive the Camera Originals (RAW files) in a safe read-only share, and then have the RAWs and JPGs split to different working shares, so my wife can manage JPGs in iPhoto on her Mac, while I use RAWs in LightRoom, and everything that we edit gets archived on a network drive.

    Thanks again for sharing your script publicly!

  2. LeadNo Gravatar
    22:39 on March 31st, 2013

    thank you for this beautiful script, it almost does what I need. Just a few adjustment and combined with a Raspberry Pi it’ll be a foto-autocopystation on my wedding in may!

  3. FredrikNo Gravatar
    15:20 on April 13th, 2013

    Thank you for sharing interesting ideas! I used some parts of your script and had a thought of copy the files from my camera’s memcard to one location and rename them there based on EXIF, and copy the AVCHD from the camcorder’s memcard to another location and then automatically convert to mp4-files. However, I interpreted your article as if every SD card had a unique ID_SERIAL, but in my logs, both my memcards have the same ID_SERIAL, as if it was read from the cardreader. Hopefully I can identify them by ID_FS_LABEL instead, but I was curious about your opinion.

    Thank you! /Fredrik

  4. DanNo Gravatar
    04:15 on April 19th, 2013

    Thanks for your script — I’ve got this working fine, but I’ve been trying to provide some feedback to show that the files have been copied and the card is safe to remove. I’m trying to use matedialog (running Linux Mint), which works fine when the script is run from a terminal, but the notification won’t display when the script is run from udev. I thought it might have something to do with udev killing long-running processes, but I’m not sure whether there’s a workaround. Any ideas?

  5. LaMiNo Gravatar
    08:49 on April 19th, 2013

    Yes. udev kills long running processes. That is the reason for the {…}& construct in the sd-autocopy script. It makes the script parts within those brackets executed asynchronous. My solution for a visual feedback was opening a xterm window at start, showing the syslog messages and hiding it after the user hit any key in the terminal.

  6. LucaNo Gravatar
    19:53 on January 22nd, 2014

    hi Lars, great :) … the thing is I don’t have a linux box for this … any chance you know how to do it in windows 7 ? … been trying to find the event for the sd insertion but I don’t seem to able to find it … i could then attach the event to a task and the job would be done :) thanks Luca

No trackbacks yet.